Do you need to characterize your nanomaterials?

We will advise you on which is the appropriate technique for each type of sample to design a specific analysis for each case, depending on the information needed and the type of sample.

Characterization in Vitro

Microscopy techniques:

Size, shape, monodispersity and composition:
- Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).
- Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

 

Elemental Analysis:

Determination of the mass fractions of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S).

 

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR):

Molecular structure determination.

 

Inductively coupled plasma (ICP):

Identification and quantification of chemicals elements.

 

Zeta potential:

Measurement of surface charge of nano/microparticles in solution.

 

Dynamic light scattering (DLS):

Hydrodynamic radius and size distribution of nanoparticles in solution.

 

Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR):

Characterization of the major functional groups present on the surface of the sample.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy:

Assessing the nature and chemical state of the surface atoms of the nanostructure to depth of 5 nm (4-20 atomic layers).

 

Fluorescence spectrophotometry:

Fluorescence analysis of samples in solution.

 

Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID):

Determination of magnetic properties of nanostructures.

 

UV-visible spectroscopy:

Quantitative analysis of analytes.

 

Total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF):

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical elements in solid and liquid samples.

 

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA):

Determination of the amount of weight change of a material as a function of increasing temperature in an atmosphere of nitrogen or air.

 

Mass spectrometry (MS):

Determination of the mass of molecules.

Determination of the colloidal stability and aggregation in biological media such as saline solution, culture media, cell extracts, whole-blood or serum. 

Quantification of endotoxin units with different methods based on the use of Limulus Amebocyte Lysate -LAL. Preliminary screening, quantification, inhibition and enhancement.

Quantification of colony-forming units of aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold.

Selection of suitable cell lines according to the administration route, biodistribution and expected clearance.

Cell viability assay: MTS in metabolically active cells as indicator of proliferation. Discrimination of viable and non‐viable cells using propidium iodide and trypan blue. xCELLigence system for label-free and real-time monitoring of cell -viability.

Apoptosis: Annexin V / propidium iodide, caspase 3 and caspase 8 activation by flow cytometry Reactive Oxygen Species: determination of reactive oxygen species by flow cytometry.

Immunomodulation in PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), macrophages and cell lines.

Phagocytosis: Functional evaluation and microscopy monitoring of nanoparticle internalization by phagocytic cells.

Inflammasome: Caspase-1 activation by flow cytometry and induction of IL-1β by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).

Leukocyte proliferation: Clonal proliferation of PBMCs measured by flow cytometry.

Immunological response: Inflammatory cytokine profile and Th1, Th2, Th17 response of PBMCs measured by flow cytometry or Luminex multiplex technology.

Complement activation: Identification in serum of C3/C3b by western-blot. Quantification of C3b by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).

 

Determination of contact properties of the nanomaterials with blood cells or plasma proteins.

Coagulation: intrinsic, extrinsic and common coagulation pathways are assessed by partial thromboplastin time (APTT) prothrombin time (PT) and Thrombin time (TT), respectively. Based on free interference Viscosity Detection System (VDS).

Haemolysis: colorimetric measurement of haemoglobin released.

Platelet activation: activated platelets detected by flow cytometry and aggregation by microscopy.