Do you need to characterize your nanomaterials?

We will advise you on which is the appropriate technique for each type of sample to design a specific analysis for each case, depending on the information needed and the type of sample.

Biodistribution, acute toxicity and maximum tolerated dose (OECD 423). Necropsy report of animals and collection of organs showing abnormalities.

Characterization in Vitro

Microscopy techniques:

Size, shape, monodispersity and composition:
- Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).
- Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).


Elemental Analysis:

Determination of the mass fractions of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S).


Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR):

Molecular structure determination.


Inductively coupled plasma (ICP):

Identification and quantification of chemicals elements.


Zeta potential:

Measurement of surface charge of nano/microparticles in solution.


Dynamic light scattering (DLS):

Hydrodynamic radius and size distribution of nanoparticles in solution.


Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR):

Characterization of the major functional groups present on the surface of the sample.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy:

Assessing the nature and chemical state of the surface atoms of the nanostructure to depth of 5 nm (4-20 atomic layers).


Fluorescence spectrophotometry:

Fluorescence analysis of samples in solution.


Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID):

Determination of magnetic properties of nanostructures.


UV-visible spectroscopy:

Quantitative analysis of analytes.


Total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF):

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical elements in solid and liquid samples.


Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA):

Determination of the amount of weight change of a material as a function of increasing temperature in an atmosphere of nitrogen or air.


Mass spectrometry (MS):

Determination of the mass of molecules.

Determination of the colloidal stability and aggregation in biological media such as saline solution, culture media, cell extracts, whole-blood or serum. 

Quantification of endotoxin units with different methods based on the use of Limulus Amebocyte Lysate -LAL. Preliminary screening, quantification, inhibition and enhancement.

Quantification of colony-forming units of aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold.

Selection of suitable cell lines according to the administration route, biodistribution and expected clearance.

Cell viability assay: MTS in metabolically active cells as indicator of proliferation. Discrimination of viable and non‐viable cells using propidium iodide and trypan blue. xCELLigence system for label-free and real-time monitoring of cell -viability.

Apoptosis: Annexin V / propidium iodide, caspase 3 and caspase 8 activation by flow cytometry Reactive Oxygen Species: determination of reactive oxygen species by flow cytometry.

Immunomodulation in PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), macrophages and cell lines.

Phagocytosis: Functional evaluation and microscopy monitoring of nanoparticle internalization by phagocytic cells.

Inflammasome: Caspase-1 activation by flow cytometry and induction of IL-1β by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).

Leukocyte proliferation: Clonal proliferation of PBMCs measured by flow cytometry.

Immunological response: Inflammatory cytokine profile and Th1, Th2, Th17 response of PBMCs measured by flow cytometry or Luminex multiplex technology.

Complement activation: Identification in serum of C3/C3b by western-blot. Quantification of C3b by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).


Determination of contact properties of the nanomaterials with blood cells or plasma proteins.

Coagulation: intrinsic, extrinsic and common coagulation pathways are assessed by partial thromboplastin time (APTT) prothrombin time (PT) and Thrombin time (TT), respectively. Based on free interference Viscosity Detection System (VDS).

Haemolysis: colorimetric measurement of haemoglobin released.

Platelet activation: activated platelets detected by flow cytometry and aggregation by microscopy.

Gold nanoprisms could be appropriate candidates for in vitro cellular thermoablation due to their efficient internalization and heating capacity